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Conservation And Defense
COMMENTS ON THE CONTRIBUTIONS
BY FLOYD W. LdROUCHE
In Charge of Information and Publications
Army records for 1941 indicate the startling response by Indians to the mil-
itary necessities of the current emergency. But military statistics fail to tellthe
full story of Indian loyalty to their country; to the land they have defended for un-
known thousands of years. A most significant element in this great and continuing
struggle is the Indian effort to rebuild and to restore the land on which he lives-
that part of the whole he still retains. This conservation battle is portrayed in part
in the current issue which commemorates the eighth anniversary of the Indian Division
of the Civilian Conservation Corps. In pictures and in words we have attempted to con-
vey a significant fragment of the total effort and the total result.
Speaking of pictures recalls that a new photographer appears in the pages
of this issue. He is, fittingly, employed by the CCC; W. J. Mead, a member of the
staff of Guy McKinney, Director of Information for CCC. On page 15, James Ortiz, of
San Juan Pueblo, operates a pump which draws water from the Santa Clara ditch to keep
the ditch dry for pipe-laying operations; and Indian CCC workers lower a section of
pipe into a ditch through which a pipeline from Santa Clara Creek will supply water to
Santa Clara Pueblo and adjoining lands.
Notable among the pictures of Indians in the Army are those of Dewey Roberts
and Willard Senache, in the upper half of the frontispiece. Below are Frank Senache,
Mike Wayne and Dewey Youngbear. All are Sac and Fox Indians from Mesquakie Reservation,
in Iowa. All are volunteers in the Iowa National Guard. The photographs were made
available through the courtesy of the Des Moines (Iowa) Register and Tribune.
On page 18 we see Navajos who came to headquarters to register for selective
service, equipped with food, packs and guns. They were ready for immediate action.
Photographs were made by Sumner and supplied to "Indians At Work" by John C. McPhee.
Indian ceremonial customs are an important part of Indian life. At the re-
cent Institute on the Future of the American Indian, held in New York, ceremonials
spoke for themselves. Tewa Indians, pictured on page 22, brought costumes and make-up
across the country from Tesuque Pueblo, New Mexico, to make an authentic presentation
of their native dances. The picture was furnished by the Museum of Modern Art.
The front cover picture by Arthur Rothstein shows Grant McCloud, Paiute In-
dian, learning to use a bandsaw at Carson Agency, Nevada.
In 1890 many Indians were killed and more were maimed in the massacre at
Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota. In 1941, on the evening of April 12, Indian braves
will be guests of honor at a dinner in Washington, D. C, guests of old-time military
men who fought against the Indians. The Order of Indian Wars, inviting Indian war-
riors to dine with them as specially honored guests, provide a measure of transforma-
tion that time has brought.
NOTE TO EDITORS:
Text in this magazine is available for reprinting as desired.
Pictures will be supplied to the extent of their availability.
INDIANS AT WORK
in This Issue
Comments On The Contributions ...:■•■■,! '."."T77 Inside Front Cover
Sao and Fox Indians In Iowa National
Guard (see notes on opposite page) Frontispiece
Editorial John Collier
Ross Hardin Surveys A Ditoh Line On
the Fort MoDermitt Reservation,
Nevada. (Photo by Arthur Rothstein) 2
All Is Not Work In the Indian CCC Camps
(Photo by Dwight Gardin) 4
Indians Indebted to Justice Van Devanter 6
Wife of the Interpreter at Zuni Pueblo
(Photo by Frank Werner) 7
Pueblo Drums Ten Broeck Williamson
Hard Working Indian Men In Many States Re-
build Assets and Morale In CCC-ID Claude C. Cornwall 10
Summer School Course To Be Continued By
University of Oklahoma I4
Thirty-three Indian Agencies Make CCC Safety
Record in January 16
Detailed Figures On Indian Enlistments Show
Extent Of Their Defense Efforts 19
Three Indian Members Of Company H, 179th In-
fantry, Oklahoma National Guard 21
Tewa Indian Dancers From Tesuque Pueblo At
Museum Of Modern Art (Photo by Albert Fenn) 22
Indian History In The Making Rosella Senders 23
Indian Masks At Museum Of Modern Art Exhibit
(Photo by Soichi Sunami) 2L.
William Crowe, One of Twenty-Eight Eastern
Cherokees Who Enlisted In the U. S. Army
(Photo by Knoxville News Sentinel) 27
Indians In The News 28
Indians Conserving And Rebuilding Their Re-
sources Through CCC-ID 30
Florida Seminoles Build Community Shower As
CCC-ID Project (Photo by Dwight Gardin) 32
Federal Court In Utah Upholds Authority Of Sec-
retary Ickes In Navajo Grazing Areas 34
Young Wisconsin Chippewa Wins Acclaim For Res-
cuing Illinois Men From Drowning Inside Back Cover
Papago Indians On Way To Indian CCC Anniver-
sary Celebration - Back Cover
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR - OFriCE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS-WASWNGTDN, O.C
A News Sheet For INDIANS and me INDIAN SERVICE
VOLUME VIII APRIL 1941 NUMBER 8
The Eighth Anniversary of Indian C.C.C. has come. There is so
much that could be told. One could dwell on the great, in many reserva-
tions the decisive, gains in the conservation and use of resources, which
Indian C.C.C. has made possible. One could tell how Indian C.C.C. has ex-
ploded the damaging myth that Indians do not want to work. One could call
attention to the improved health, through expanded and improved dietary,
which Indian C.C.C. has bestowed directly upon tens of thousands of Indians
and indirectly upon scores of thousands.
But here I dwell upon another aspect, that of adult education.
Indian C.C.C. was born just when the earlier attitude about Indian
education was dying. That earlier attitude was discussed in the "Indians At
Work" editorial for February. The earlier attitude had confronted the Indian
with a choice: he could retreat into, and rebelliously or passively struggle
to protect, his Indian personality, his group loyalties, his Indian "web of
life", or he could forswear his personality and his loyalties and try to
surrender himself to an unrepresentative part of the white world, believed
to be wholly incompatible with his Indian world. This earlier attitude pro-
duced a "social orthopedy" turned upside down - it used social pressure and
reward to bring about deformity rather than development.
Indian C.C.C. had no pedagogical doctrine, no special philosophy,
but it was uniquely situated to help in the repair work which the earlier
unwise philosophy had made necessary. Coinciding with Indian C.C.C.. an in-
tensified and many-sided conservation effort was launched in the Indian
: : ;::|li:::| : :yS;:)i:y,,\
Ross Hardin, Paiute Indian,
and secretary of the local
tribal council, surveys a
ditch line on the Fort Mc-
Dermitt Reservation in
country. This conservation effort entailed the use of a -wide range of tech-
nologies essentially modern. The technologies were not just mechanical, but
they were at the engineering level too, and the economic level, the planning
level and the ecological level. Ten thousand Indian young men and middle-
aged men, working in groups, proceeded to master these technologies by us-
ing them. Indian C.C.C. did not say, "Indians, here is another chance to
stop being Indians." It said, "This is your Indian C.C.C. Be Indians, and
be in the great world." And the enrollees did not migrate to distant places,
but worked and learned at their homes, within their tribal setups, upon
their own ancient and future lands.
The use of Indians in managerial and technical capacities was
stressed as it had never been before. And the Indian C.C.C. did not op-
erate as a self-sufficient branch of Indian Service, but as a part of the
whole Indian jurisdictions, drawing to itself the experience and energies
of the white and Indian staffs, and radiating its effects through the whole
community of the Indians.
Perhaps most important of all, Indian C.C.C. did not profess to
be just an activity for improving the morals or minds of Indians. Important
and socially needed production, but production through the muscles and also
the brains of Indians, was the genius of Indian C.C.C. Surely, in these
years the Indian C.C.C. has come as near as any activity in the United
States to meeting the lasting challenge of William James, voiced in the
famous essay on The Moral Equivalent of War.
Adult education is the task and opportunity of the whole of In-
In what other field in America is the opportunity more commanding?
Here are small human groups, often small enough for every member
to know all the others. In nearly every case they are groups with a heroic
tradition. They are groups, since decades or generations ago, desperately
underprivileged. They now know that they can survive and can advance, but
only through immediate and sustained effort by themselves.
These groups, and their individuals, feel impacts from the near
and the far. They are not "land-locked pools left by the tide" but they
move in the tide of the world. Yet they have, too, long memories, rich
inward values, and complex and strong local loyalties.
They are using the many technologies already referred to. Add the
challenges and opportunities involved in tribal self-government. Add the
terribly urgent need for land consolidation, dependent on voluntary action
by tribes and individuals. Add the great need for health education. Think
All is not work in the Indian CCC camps.
Here is shown a group of Seminole Indian
workers relaxing around the evening camp-
fire, after a hard day's work in the
Florida Everglades, while a story-teller
entertains with old legends and fables.
of the educational potentialities of the system of agricultural credit. Ck)
beyond tribal political self-government and consider the tremendous adult-
education yield of consumer and producer cooperatives as England, Denmark,
Ireland and, in current years, China, have reaped that yield. Consumer and
producer cooperatives are almost the main hope of half the Indian tribes.
Add arts and crafts to all the above, and wild life conservation. Consider
that Indian Service maintains a far-flung system of schools, day and board-
ing, and hospitals, and field medical and nursing services.
What a need and what an opportunity for adult education.*
And much adult education there has been, and more with each year
in these current years.
But upon the basic proposition: that every worker in the Indian
Service, including elementary teachers, doctors, nurses, and all agency
personnel, has an adult-education responsibility, and every function of
Indian Service ought to yield to an adult-education product: upon that
basic proposition, is now being built a further proposition. Namely, that
tEe time has come in this task to bring greater system, greater attention,
and the most effective known or discoverable devices of adult education,
As part of the reorganization of the Washington Indian Office,
now going on, a Board of Adult Education is being formed. It will have for
its chairman the Chief of the Community Services Branch. Among the members
of this Board will be the heads of those operating divisions which are most
essential in adult education: the Education Division, Health Division, Ex-
tension Division, Indian C.C.C., Planning and Development. There will be
advisory members drawn from outside the Indian Service. Local Boards on
Adult Education should be formed in the jurisdictions.
That all that we do shall register in a richer, saner , more san-
guine consciousness among Indians . and in programs more voluntary and more
practical : that is the hope of adult education .
Late in these recent nights, with Indian work put aside, I have
been living in far Cathay. Did not the Indians of 15,000 years ago come
from where the ancestors of China came from? And in Inner Mongolia would
not the direct ancestors of the Indians now be found?
It has been the reading - the slow reading - of a perfectly gor-
geous book, "The Battle for Asia. " Its author, Edgar Snow, is the most dar-
ing, the most factual and perhaps the most philosophical journalist of these
current years in China. Reading his book, has been like watching from some
dusky mountain-ridge the silent play of lightning far down a horizon, out
in our West. Why do I mention China, here, and Edgar Snow's superb book?
Because perhaps more strikingly than any other country or race, now in the
crisis of our whole globe, China exemplifies the reconditioning of the mind,
the grapple of the effort of democracy with final fate, the convulsion of
world-view - the process of adult education .
These all but countless thousands of Chinese villages are achiev-
ing village democracy now - only now - after milleniums, in order to win
democracy's supreme battle for themselves and for the whole world. They
are doing this in the face of difficulties internal to China which are
simply terrifying. If any worker in any good cause in the United States
is discouraged by the meagerness of his means, let him read this book on
China. There, out of such meagerness of means as none of us ever experi-
enced, wonderful and seemingly impossible things are being done. No one
can read Edgar Snow's book without gaining in humility, and in hope for
the Race of Man.
Commissioner of Indian Affairs
Indians Indebted To Justice Van Devanter
Of Willis Van Devanter, retired Associate Justice of the Supreme
Court, who died February 8th, the Washington Post writes:
"The land was his first and last love, and his
knowledge of the laws that governed it was the back-
bone of his long public career. "
Perhaps because land was his preoccupation, Mr. Justice Van Devan-
ter helped make Supreme Court history for the Indians. Preeminent was his
opinion in the Sandoval Case (231 U.S. 28) in 1913. That opinion reversed
the Joseph Case of 1871. Through the Joseph case the Supreme Court had by
statement and implication denied, or seemed to deny, wardship status to the
Pueblo Indians. The Sandoval Case radically reversed the Joseph Case and
laid the foundation for the Federal protection of the lands of these tribes,
for the recovery of much land whose possession had been lost under the Jos-
eph decision, and for large cash awards later paid by the Government be-
cause of its derelictions as guardian. The Sandoval decision received am-
plification in later Supreme Court decisions. The Indians, and the American
record, lastingly are indebted to Mr. Justice Van Devanter.
The wife of the interpre-
ter at Zuni Pueblo in New
Mexico carries her flour
to a relative' s house to
have it baked in one of
the old adobe out-of-door
By Ten Broeck Williamson
If the Yisitor to the
Pueblo Indian country takes a-
way a "tom-tom" or Indian drum
as a souvenir, the chances are
that it was made at Cochiti
Pueblo. For Cochiti supplies
most of the drums found in
curio stores and therefrom de-
rives a considerable income.
Cochiti Pueblo is
situated on the west bank of
the Rio Grande, about forty
miles north of Albuquerque, New
Mexico. Being along the river
the Pueblo has access to a sup-
ply of cottonwood trees, chief
source of drum shell material,
although aspen occasionally is
The ideal tree trunk
for use in making drums is one
from a dead tree, having a
sound exterior but a center so decayed as to make
is sawed into the desired lengths and the shells
hollowing easy. The trunk
are hollowed to the proper
thickness, which is from
one-half to three-quar-
ters of an inch. A leaf
from an old automobile
spring makes an ideal
tool for this hollowing
process, with one end
sharpened like a chisel
and with the other stuck
into a piece of pipe for
a handle. In the picture
above, Lorenzo Herrera
hollows out a tree trunk.
Drum heads made of cow
hide are cut slightly larger than
the shell, are soaked in water,
and are laced on the shell when
still wet. The wet drum heads
then dry taut in the sun.
On the opposite page,
Nestor Arquero puts his drums out
When dry, the drums are
painted. Marcello Quintana, shown
in the picture above, finishes his
drums with black shoe dye. The
shells are painted in brilliant
colors with poster paints.
(Photographs are by the
author, and are used through the
courtesy of the Soil Conservation
HARD WORKING INDIAN MEN IN MANY STATES
REBUILD ASSETS AND MORALE IN CCC-ID
By Claude C. Cornwall
During the period March 29 to April 5, the Civilian Conservation
Corps will celebrate its eighth year with appropriate ceremonies in all
camps, including "open house" receptions to which the general public will
be invited. Similar celebrations to mark the eighth birthday of the Indian
Division of CCC have been planned for all Indian agencies. April 5 is gen-
erally accepted as the official anniversary because the Executive Order es-
tablishing the Corps was signed by President Roosevelt on that date, back
in 1933. For CCC-ID, the comparable date is June 20, when the first trans-
fer of funds for use by the I.E.C.W. , (Indian Emergency Conservation Work)
was officially made.
The initiation of the Emergency Conservation program came at a
time of great national stress due to economic disarrangement and widespread
unemployment. In his inaugural address in 1933, the President said:
"Our greatest primary task is to put people to
work. This is no unsolvable problem if we face it wise-
ly and courageously.
"It can be accomplished in part by direct recruit-
ing by the Government itself, treating the task as we
would treat the emergency of war, but at the same time,
through this employment, accomplishing greatly needed
projects to stimulate and reorganize the use of our na-
tural resources. "
President Outlines Plan
On March 21, the President sent a message to Congress outlining
his plan for Emergency Conservation Work, and on March 27, the measure
to create a corps of civilian workers was being debated in the Senate. Dur-
ing this debate a question was asked concerning the language of the bill:
"Do the words, 'Government Reservations', include Indian reservations?"
This was the first mention of Indians in connection with the Emergency
Conservation Work. The answer was, "Yes." It was an eagerly awaited
answer at the Indian Office. It came at a time when economic conditions
and personal morale were in a most precarious condition on Indian reser-
vations. Work was badly needed.
Preparations were set in motion at once for participation of In-
dians in the program. Selection of conservation projects which were nec-
essary to be done was not a difficult matter. For years the Indian Office
had urged larger appropriations for needed improvements to protect the for-
est stands and range lands; for truck trails, lookout towers, water develop-
ments, boundary fences. From the outset Commissioner Collier vigorously
supported the project. On April 20 a letter was sent through Secretary
Ickes to the President outlining these projects, and on April 2U, a second
letter was similarly sent, asking that Indians be enrolled to carry out
this work; that they be permitted to set up their own camps, that age and
marital status limitations be waived, and that the Indian Service super-
vise the operation of the programs. These recommendations received ap-
proval on May 1, from the newly-appointed Director, Mr. Robert Fechner, and
the I.E.C.W. was officially begun.
In the first six months of I.E.C.W., nearly 14,000 Indians
beneficiaries of this needed work opportunity.
The family camps
advocated by Commissioner
Collier proved to be an in-
teresting development in the
early days of the I.E.C.W.
Men, women and children were
assembled together in the
first work camps. These be-
came little villages with a
camp manager who was ap-
pointed to provide the nec-
essary sanitation structures
and essential camp needs.
While the men worked on con-
servation projects, the ir
wives living in the camps
prepared the food and took
care of the children so that
normal family life was not
When the Civilian
Conservation Corps was offi-
cially established on July
1, 1937, I.E.C.W. became
CCC-ID. This organization
Navajo CCC Workors
Build A Spillway For A
Dam At Tho Dry Basin
Of Rod Lako.
which began as a "temporary measure of six months duration" now enters its
ninth year. More than 70,000 individual Indians have been enrolled." For
most of the young men this was their first job opportunity, their'first
chance at a real project. For others, who had been employed in industrial
occupations but who had been forced to leave their jobs and return to the
reservations because of the depression, this was a chance to feel again the
satisfaction of exercising their skills at hand tools or machinery. These
Indians were among the first leaders in I.E.C.W.
Indian Leadership Developed
For the young men, CCC-ID work has been fascinating. Such proj-
ects as developing a clear running spring from a miry bog, blasting a truck
trail around a rocky ledge, spotting a beetle-infested tree, bracing the
corners of a strong fence, holding a powerful jackhammer, driving a truck
operating a tractor, have constituted a developing experience for thousands
of Indian youth. The present leadership of CCC-ID includes hundreds of In-
dians who have come up from the ranks - who began as enrollees.
As these skills and abilities have grown, so have the mileages of
completed structures. More than 8,000 miles of truck trails have been
completed; nearly 11,000 miles of fences have been, built; Indian enrollees
have added to the water supply of ranges through the development of 7 000
springs, 1,670 wells, and 1,^62 impounding dams and large reservoirs; range
lands have been improved through elimination ef 307,257 head of useless
stock, constructing 71,700 erosion control water-spreading structures, 680
miles of stock trails, and 2,500 miljs of horse and man trails; Indian for-
est lands have, in addition to improved transportation facilities and fire
hazard reduction, been given added protection through construction of 53
houses for fire guards, erection of 85 lookout towers, building of 6,800
miles of telephone lines, and cutting 3,000 miles of firebreaks. More than
250 crews of trained enrollees are on call at any hour of the day or night
for the suppression of forest fires. Last year advance fire fighting in-
structions were given to 4-, 977 Indian enrollees.
Indians Earn As They Learn
Vocational training, including work experience and related in-
struction, has been given in more than 100 different occupational subjects.
The CCC has the unique opportunity of providing training in actual jobs on
a production level, thus equipping the enrollees with knowledge and skills
comparable to commercial construction practices. Related instruction has
served to broaden the viewpoint of enrollees and give them an understanding
of the background principles of their acquired jab skills. For example,
the intensive training in telephone and radio was accompanied with in-
struction in elementary electricity and mechanics; training in fire fight-
ing included instruction in the principles of forest conservation; train-
ing in surveying included elementary mathematics and other related subjects;
training in concrete construction included instruction in the processes in-
volved in concrete contracting.
Through the CCC safety program, accident costs in CCC-ID, includ-
ing property damage, have decreased 4-6 per cent. Safety meetings are held
each week on all job locations, and careful inspections are continually
made to insure safe working conditions for all personnel, at project lo-
cations, in shops and camps.
Enrollees have been instructed to work skillfully and safely.
They appreciate that safety is not a matter of luck. They have learned
that an alert, well-informed enrollee, operating equipment which is in good
order, or working under approved safe conditions, acquires safe habits.
He doesn't get hurt; accidents do not "happen" to him.
Contributes To National Defense
Conservation work performed by CCC-ID enrollees on Indian res-
ervations, and other lands, is of as vital importance to the nation as it
is to the Indians whose homes and way of life are found on the national
reserves. Indian lands occupy a considerable portion of the watersheds
and timber stands important to irrigation and the agricultural life of the
arid West. Projects to conserve these resources have been skillfully com-
pleted by Indian enrollees in the CCC-ID organization during the past eight
GCC-ID Workers Repair A Tolopoono At Too Radio and Tolaphoao School, Caomawa, Oregon
CQC-ID is only one part of the great nation-wide activity, a pro-
gram of work and training, of service to community and country; a combined
program of human and land conservation going forward hand in hand.
The application of this program to the nation's defense is at
once obvious.. America's defense supplies are to be found in its trained
man power and in its developed natural resources. Hundreds of Indian CCC
enrollees have already volunteered or have been called to the colors. The
practical value of their experience and training in CCC-ID has already
been recognized from the progress made by individual Indians in produc-
tive employment both on and off the reservations, and this development will
be more appreciated as time goes on.
And so with this determination to serve as best we can, the CCC-
ID organization enters its ninth year.
Summer School Course On Modern Indian
To Be Continued By University of Oklahoma
A course on The Problems of the Modern American Indian will he
presented this summer at the summer school of the University of Oklahoma.
The course will be conducted this year by Dr. Gordon Macgregor, anthropol-
ogist in the Education Division of the Office of Indian Affairs. This study,
begun in 194-0 under the University's Department of Anthropology, will con-
sider the position of contemporary Indian groups in the United States, popu-
lation changes, racial composition, degree of assimilation, problems of so-
cial disorganization and adjustment, and the policies and effects of Govern-
This year the course will be open to those of junior standing and
will not require previous preparation in anthropology. A discussion group
on the Problems of the Modern Indian will also be conducted by Dr. Macgregor
for advanced students and those who have had experience in Indian adminis-
A course in social anthropology for students of junior or higher
standing will also be given. This will examine the culture and social or-
ganization of modern communities and of primitive peoples of the world.
Many Navajo Indians, having heard much about the war, thought the
call for registration was a call to fight for their country. After
bidding their families a fond farewell, they came to headquarters
on horseback and equipped for immediate military service with
food, packs, and sometimes guns, as shown above. The field radio
transmitter was used to report registration progress to the Navajo
Agency at Window Rock, Arizona.
33 INDIAN AGENCIES IN 15 1
- 8/ 2^fee
3r s 0n
The map was prepared
BY MISS MARY B.
bo v a y, indian ccc
Sam Attahvich, Co-
manche, DID THE
Wind Ri V e r
Un ' t SS Jeb,os
N£ W MEX,co
■ Standing Rnri,
^ Cheyenne River
Crow C el
_Cheyenne 8 A p
fES MAKE CCC SAFETY RECORD IN JANUARY
.„ e* c
F ^ve VTribes
CAROL* • -j^j
On the map is shown
the Percentage of accidents
Among Indian CCC workers, ac-
cording to days worked. with
The Increase in frequency of
accidents, the circle increases in
The following 33 agencies, with a
total of 29,574 man-days worked, re-
ported not even a minor injury:
Choctaw, Hiss.; New York, N. Y.j
Seminole, Fla.; Sac i, Fox, Iowa; Flan-
dreau, Pierre, Sisseton, all in S.D.;
Ft. Berthold and Turtle Mt., in n.d.j
Crow, Ft. Eelknap, Rocky Boy's, all
in Montana; Klamath, Chemawa, Grand
Ronde-Siletz, all in Ore.; Northern
Idaho, Idaho; Tulalip, wn.; hoopa
valley and sacrewanto, calif.;
Western Shoshone, nev.; Ft.
Apache, Phoenix School, Pima, s*n
Carlos, Sells, hcpi,all in Ari.;
'jlCARILLA, UESCALER0,N.M.; CHIL-
occo School, Osage, Pawnee, Pota—
3AT0MI AND QUAPAW, ALL IN OKLA.
33 INDIAN AGENCIES IN 15 STATES MAKE CCC SAFETY RECORD IN JANUARY
" f Ho«
: on 0r ,
The map *ag prepared
Bovay, Indian CCC
SAU ATTAHVICH, Co-
UANCHE, 010 THE
" v " Tongue
Cheyenne 6t Aropoho
Op* THE MAP IS SHOWN
the percentage of accioents
Among Indian CCC workers, ac-
cord I UG TO DAYS WORKED. «ITH
The increase in frequency of
ACCIDENTS, THE CIRCLE INCREASES IN
THE FOLLOWING 33 AGENCIES, WITH A
TOTAL OF 29,574 MAN-OAYS WORKED, RE-
PORTED NOT EVEN A UINOR INJURY:
DETAILED FIGURES ON INDIAN ENLISTMENTS
SHOW EXTENT OF THEIR DEFENSE EFFORTS
Surprisingly large percentages of Indians are volunteering in
defense of their country and many others are being trained in civilian
skills of potential military value, according to field reports received
by the Office of Indian Affairs. Indians are exhibiting some remarkable
mechanical and technical skills, these reports reveal.
Although the formation of special training battalions for non-
English-speaking eligibles has been deferred, leaving a large segment of
the Indian population without the opportunity of enlistment, figures from
26 out of a total of 80 Indian jurisdictions scattered throughout the coun-
try attest to the Indian's patriotism.
Montana Reservation Holds Record
On the basis of these figures, the Fort Peck Sioux-Assiniboine
Reservation in northern Montana seems to hold an all-time record. Almost
one-half of the number eligible for selective service have already volun-
teered in the armed forces of the nation. Of the 252 Fort Peck Indians
registered for selective service, 113 have volunteered for Army service,
including five Indians who were employed on the staff of the Fort Peck In-
According to reports from 26 agencies, the number of Indians who
have volunteered is about 15 times greater than the number inducted through
State Figures Are Listed
By March 1, 98 young braves had left the Consolidated Chippewa
Agency in Minnesota, to join the Army; 60 had enlisted from the peaceful
tribe of the long-haired Pima in Arizona; 55 Sioux had left the Rosebud
Reservation in South Dakota, including 23 Indians employed on the staff of
the Rosebud Agency; and 28 out of a possible 262 eligible for selective
service had enlisted from the North Carolina Eastern Qherokee Reservation.
In addition to the above, reports came from the following agen-
cies: Blackfeet Indian Agency, Montana; Colorado River Agency, Arizona;
Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kansas; Keshena Agency, Wisconsin; Kiowa Agen-
cy, Anadarko, Oklahoma; Mescalero Agency, New Mexico; Mission Agency, River-
side^ California; Osage Agency, Pawhuska, Oklahoma; Red Lake Agency, Min-
nesota; Rocky Boy's Agency, Montana; Sequoyah Training School, Tahlequah,
Oklahoma; Shawnee Agency, Oklahoma; Sherman Institute, Riverside, Califor-
nia; Sisseton Agency, South Dakota; Taholah Agency, Hoquissa, Washington;
Tongue River Agency, Lame Deer, Montana; Truxton Canon Agency, Valentine,
Arizona; Turtle Mountain Agency, Belcourt, North Dakota; Western Shoshone
Agency, Owyhee, Nevada; Winnebago Agency, Nebraska; Yakima Agency, Toppen-
The number of Indians registered for selective service at these
26 agencies is 7,407; 574 have volunteered for military service and 37 have
been inducted. Hundreds of additional Indians who have volunteered or who
are in National Guard units in different parts of the country, particularly
Oklahoma, which has the largest Indian population, are not included in the
above figures. For example, many Oklahoma Indians are in the 180th In-
fantry of the Army, which has for its motto a phrase from the Choctaw lan-
guage, "Tanap manaiya kia alhtaiyaha", which translated freely means,
"Ready, in Peace or War. "
The Army reports that in addition to the hundreds of Indians
mobilized in National Guard units and the small number of Indian selectees,
670 Indians were enlisted in the regular Army throughout the country dur-
ing the six months from July 1, 1940 to January 1, 1941.
Ancestors Were In Custer Battle
The Sioux who left the Fort Peck Reservation to join the U. S.
Army are descendants of the band led by Chief Gall, one of the leaders in
the Battle of the Little Big Horn, which resulted in defeat and annihilation
of General George J. Custer's Seventh U. S. Cavalry.
Many of the Indian CCC camps were greatly depleted when word of
Uncle Sam's defense needs began to spread through Indian country. The
skills Indians have acquired through the Civilian Conservation Corps are
being utilized by both the military forces in defense training and the ci-
vilian forces in the construction of defense projects. Particularly is
the CCC Indian's ability to handle a truck through rough and timber coun-
try considered an asset in Army camps. The CCC Indian men are thoroughly
schooled in the rules of safety and from their past training demonstrate
a keen sense of responsibility in the hauling of men or materials.
Klamaths Vote Defense Contribution
An example of Indian patriotism, probably unparalleled in white
communities, comes from the Klamath Tribe in Oregon, which won a judgment
against the United States in 1938 for past wrongs perpetrated on the tribe.
The Klamath General Council voted to donate $150,000 to the Government on
the condition that it establish a defense training school at the Klamath
Agency, Klamath Falls, Oregon. The training school as planned by -the Coun-
cil would be under direct supervision of Army officials and would train
young Indians in aviation and forest fire control, with particular em-
phasis on training connected with national defense. The Klamath Indians
are especially interested in having Army officials construct an airport
and provide training planes for young Indians. Withdrawal of the money
from the tribal fund requires the approval of the Congress.
Indians are volunteering in the armed forces of the United States
in increasing numbers. Jesse MeNevins, Cherokee; Corporal Tommy
Hattensty, Choctaw; and Sergeant Douglas Burris, Chickasaw, mem-
bers of Company H, 179th Infantry, Oklahoma National Guard, were
among the representatives of twenty-eight Indian tribes found
among the troops assembled for Third Army Maneuvers in Louisiana.
INDIAN HISTORY IN THE MAKING
By Rosella Senders
There was a time, and not so long ago, when a discussion of the
future of the American Indian might have begun and ended with the words
"he hasn't any." The Indian had a past - quite an interesting one - and
a poor sort of present, but his future was considered to be something that
he would probably not live to see. Indians of the United States languished
on reservation land, or crowded in unsightly and unwholesome shack settle-
ments at the edges of towns and cities. Anthropologists and sociologists
said they were a doomed race, and Government administration of the 19th
century strengthened this belief.
Only as recently as the 1920' s, Government policy began to be
liberalized, to be planned for the Indian instead of for the white man.
Now the future that "didn't exist" is interesting enough to bring scien-
tists and administrators together from all over the country to make diag-
noses and prognostications.
Indian Population Growing Rapidly
Indian population is expanding so rapidly that some population
experts predict that its present figure - 361,000 - will be doubled by
1980. In a country that has no geographical frontiers left, an expanding
minority gives rise to social and economic problems that call for planned
action. Realizing, along with other leaders of thought, that the so-called
vanishing American is reappearing with startling speed, Oliver La Farge,
President of the American Association on Indian Affairs, decided that the
time had come to look ahead. With the cooperation of the Office of Indian
Affairs and the Museum of Modern Art, he planned a four-day Institute on the
future of the American Indian, and invited scientists, administrators, In-
dians, and laymen to take part in discussions of the major objectives of
present-day Indian administration. The meetings were held the week of
March 3rd in the Museum in New York City, where the current exhibition of
Indian art of the United States offered proof of the Indian's vitality in
at least one respect.
The principal speakers at the opening meeting were Indian Com-
missioner John Collier and Mr. La Farge. Leaving the details of the fu-
ture to the special discussions which were to follow, they spoke in gen-
eral of the Indian's vitality, of his spiritual resources, of the great
tradition of "local democracy" which no amount of adversity has ever smoth-
ered. Indian administration has become increasingly scientific in recent
years, and Indians are more and more eager to take advantage of the cul-
tural and social opportunities which are offered them.
Indian Me*** On Exhibit At kt*fo» Of kfo&rn Art
The Indians who were present at the meetings did not look like
members of a dying race. Representatives of several tribes took active
part in the smaller discussion groups and had much to contribute. At the
opening and closing sessions, eight Tewa Indians from Tesuque Pueblo in New
Mexico performed the Eagle Dance, Buffalo Dance, and Snow Bird Dance in
authentic costume and make-up. Their leader, the Governor of Tesuque Pueblo,
acknowledging the applause which followed the dances, was friendly and
In the numerous group discussions, all the questions raised about
the future could not be finally answered during this four-day meeting, nor
can they be answered this year or next. But the discussions were thought-
provoking and should eventually bear fruit - particularly if the Institute
becomes an annual event.
More Indians Require More Land
Indian lands present an immediate problem. More Indians mean
more land and better use of presently owned land. After reviewing the trag-
ic history of Indian lands under the allotment system, specialists agreed
that an increase in the land base is urgently needed and that the leasing
system must be abolished. Indian lands must be used by Indians. Much has
already been accomplished under the Indian Bureau's conservation policy.
Erosion is checked by the control of grazing exercised by livestock associ-
tions on the reservations; tribal funds and Indian Office revolving credit
funds (with excellent repayment records on the latter) are being used in-
creasingly for land purchases; competent technical services have been made
available. Papers on this subject were read by Dr. Ralph Linton, Director
of Anthropology at Columbia University, and by Ward Shepard, Walter V.
Woe hike, and Allan Harper of the Indian Office.
The old policy of forced assimilation into white culture has given
way, according to Willard W. Beatty, Director of Indian Education, to train-
ing directed toward a better reservation economy and a gradual adjustment,
through reservation life, to the life of the country at large. Dr. Gordon
Macgregor, anthropologist in the Education Division, reported that surveys
of the graduates of industrial training schools show only one-third em-
ployed in the fields for which they were trained, and most of these are
in temporary Government service. The majority of this school group have
returned to the reservations, where there is little or no opportunity for
using industrial training. Today agricultural training for boys is receiv-
ing new emphasis in Indian schools, and Indian girls are given home eco-
nomics training which is adapted to reservation conditions. Learning for
use is the trend of all modern education, and Indian schools are in the
New Written Language For Indians
Dr. Edward Kennard of the Education Division told of progress
in developing and teaching written native languages to the Navajo and the
Sioux. Adults absorb the new technique with surprising rapidity, and their
greater language facility makes possible a more accurate transmission of
new ideas - vitally important, for example, to the success of a soil con-
servation program. He indicated that children who have learned written
Navajo learn English more easily.
Dr. Beatty outlined his hopes for establishing a school to develop
Indian leadership - a two-year course of junior college grade. Selected
students would study problems of racial and cultural differences and gain
a thorough command of English under a carefully chosen faculty, and would
then complete their college work in different universities. These young
Indians would have a foundation for assuming constructive leadership in
Discussions of the place of Indian religion in the modern world
touched upon the values that Indian religion might have for whites, with
its dynamic philosophy of love of the land and of natural resources. Pa-
pers on Indian religion were read by Dr. William Duncan Strong and Dr. Ruth
Bunzel of Columbia University, and Mrs. Alice Corbin Henderson, who has
spent most of her life in the Pueblo country.
What Is An Indian?
Both Dr. Frank Lorimer, Director of Population Studies at Ameri-
can University in Washington, and Dr. Harry Shapiro, Assistant Curator of
the American Museum of Natural History, felt that the expanding Indian min-
ority is first of all an economic problem, with reservation lands increas-
ingly inadequate. They stressed the difficulty of defining a racial In-
dian. Dr. Shapiro said that the Indians themselves judge a person's In-
dian-ness by "blood, residence and recognition", and warned that care must
be taken that Indian privileges are enjoyed only by those really entitled
to them. Dr. James G. Townsend, until recently Director of the Govern-
ment's Indian health program, summarized that program, which has been an
important part of the resurgence of Indian life.
In the Museum setting, no one could doubt the brightness of the
future of Indian arts and crafts in spite of the temporary effects of the
tourist trade which were described by Rene d'Harnoncourt, General Manager
of the Arts and Crafts Board. Mr. d'Harnoncourt presented this picture:
When the Indians made moccasins to be worn and blankets for the purpose of
keeping warm, quality was all-important, because the article.s had to fill
a practical need; but a traveler seeking souvenirs of his trip is not so
much interested in quality. A conflict arises between the skilled produc-
er, who wants to be proud of his work as well as to make a living out of
it, and the buyer, who wants to get out of it as cheaply as possible. The
demand for quantity rather than quality brought about careless workmanship.
The net result was that the Indian lost faith in the white man's taste. The
Arts and Crafts Board has tried, with outstanding success, both to educate
the buying public and to restore the Indian's confidence in it. Mr. d'Harn-
oncourt believes the American Indians are the outstanding, if not the only,
producing group in the country who still have a feeling for tools, for ma-
terials, and for traditional design. He indicated, therefore, that if there
is to be a general revival of arts and crafts, Indian arts and crafts should
lead the movement.
The last session of the week was a meeting for children from
New York private schools - future citizens who will share the Indian's fu-
ture. In the worst snowstorm of the year, scores of children poured into
the Museum to see moving pictures of Indian life on the reservations and
real Indians doing ceremonial dances. Perhaps these future Americans will
have a better understanding of Indian life as a result of even this brief
and pleasant contact with Indians.
(Many of the papers presented will be printed in
"Indians At Work" in coming months. The Editor.)
Indian Service Extension Worker Dies
Word has just been received of the untimely death on March 21
of Miss Elizabeth Hart, Home Extension Agent for the Pima Jurisdiction
in Arizona, who for many years gave invaluable service to the Extension
William Crowe, one of the twenty-
eight Eastern Cherokees who re-
cently enlisted in the aimed
forces of the United States. Be-
fore enlisting, he made his liv-
ing on the reservation in wood-
work, specializing in making bows
and arrows. His father, Ute
Crowe, was with the 31st Division
in the World War, and was decor-
ated for heroism by saving the
life of a captain while under
heavy fire in No Man's Land.
Indians In the News
Eleven Indian agencies in Wyoming and neighboring states will share in the
disposal of 175 YellowstQne National Park buffaloes. The Indians will use the animals
for meat and hides. Agencies designated by Park officials to receive shipments in-
clude the Wind River in Wyoming; Fort Belknap, Crow, Blackf eet and Tongue River in
Montana; Fort Hall in Idaho; Fort Berthold and Standing Rock in North Dakota; and Rose-
bud, Pine Ridge and Cheyenne in South Dakota. Cheyenne , Wyoming . The Tribune . 2/22/^1 .
Resplendent in ceremonial dress, a Chippewa Indian caught the fancy of of-
ficers and men when he appeared recently at headquarters "to give my son to white
man's Array." Chief Little Cloud to his tribe and Charles W. Burnell to his pale-face
friends at Ball Club, Minnesota, the 70-year-old Indian presented a dramatic picture
as he entered the "wigwam" of the Great White Father to bid farewell to "Little Samson".
his eldest son, who will be known in the Army as Private John Burnell. Both father and
son are proud to be of service to Uncle Sam. The father seemed pleased for several
reasons. "It's about time he gets out into the world to see what it is made of," he
said. "He should come back big and strong." Duluth . Minnesota . The News -Tribune .
Young Indian men and women from widely scattered reservations in Oregon, Wa-
shington, Montana, Wyoming, Utah and Idaho assembled at Chemawa for the first rural
life and Indian youth conference in the history of the region. Paul T. Jackson, Su-
perintendent of the Chemawa Indian School, was in charge of the meeting. United States
Indian Service and State U- H Club officials led discussions on training in agriculture,
home and farm mechanics and homemaking. Formation of a Service-wide organization sim-
ilar to the Future Farmers of America was considered. Portland , Oregon. The Oregon
Journal . 2/17/U .
A new reservation for the Temoak Bands of the Western Shoshone Indians has
been established in Nevada by order of Under Secretary of the Interior A. J. Wirtz, act-
ing on the recommendation of the Indian Bureau. 9,548 acres of land in Elko County
have been set aside. The order stated that pending adoption of a land-use code by the
Indians, use of the lands was to be subject to rules to be prescribed by the Secretary
of the Interior for the protection of the soil and its proper utilization and develop-
ment. Salt Lake City. Utah . The Desert News . 2/28/4-1.
Chiefs, leaders and members from 22 Oklahoma tribes were delegates to a re-
cent State inter-tribal council. Resolutions for the passage of a law by Congress set-
ting up a special Indian claims commission were scheduled for discussion. Scattered
among those attending were men and women whose names have been known in Oklahoma State
Indian affairs for many, many years - W. A. Durant, Floyd Maytubby, Albert Noon, Ben
Dwight, Roley Canard and several others. Oklahoma City. Oklahoma . The Oklahoman . 3/1/41-
On March 15 the Stearman Division of the Boeing Airplane Company was sched-
uled to turn over to the United States Army the 1,000th plane and to the United States
Navy the 1,001st craft which the Wichita plant has built in the national defense effort.
High Array and Navy officials participated in the ceremony. Included in the several
thousand employees now on the Stearman payroll are 25 or 30 Indians from Oklahoma and
other southwestern states. "They will have a special place on the program, as the ef-
forts of the original American citizens in building airplanes during the national crisis
is decidedly unusual. " Kansas City . Kansas . The Kansas City Star . 3/12/41 .
A permanent organization of "Fort Peck United Projects" has been completed by
twenty communities between Great Falls and Williston, Montana. James L. Long of Oswego,
a Fort Peck Reservation allottee, is a member of the executive committee of this newly
formed association. The purpose of the organization is to obtain recognition by the
Federal Government of facilities at the gigantic Fort Peck Dam for use in the national
defense program. Development of irrigation and power facilities through use of water
behind the Dam will be urged along with the use of the living facilities at the site as
a training center for the Army. Great Falls, Montana . The Tribune . 2/20/4.1 .
Ben F. Mitchell, Secretary of the Klamath Indian Tribe, died March 10 from
injuries received in a fall. As secretary of the council and chairman of the tribal
loan board, Mitchell was regarded as the leader of the Klamath Tribe. The Associated
Press . 3/11/4.1 .
Critics have had plenty to say about the treatment of the American Ind ian by
the white invaders and conquerors of this continent. Lately, it is admitted, a more
enlightened policy has been in operation, and the Indian population has begun slowly
to attain a self-supporting and self-respecting position in American life.
Even so, it will come as a surprise to find that anyone is studying this Gov-
ernment's Indian policy with a view to using it to improve the lot of another group of
people. King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia has sent a representative to study our methods
and see whether they may be applied to the solution of his country's Bedouin problem.
The representative is to study particularly the conservation of land and wa-
ter resources and preservation and development of native arts and crafts as a source
of income. At present, the chief source of income of the Bedouins is the cash spent by
pilgrims who pass through the country on their way to Mecca. Minot . North Dakota . The
News ( Editorial ). 3/11/41 .
Navajo Tag-Of-War At A CCC Anitivartary Ct/tbrotion
/MD/ANS COMERV/NG AND REBUILDING
THE/R RESOURCES THROUGH CCC-ID.
Yakima (Washington) Indians Help To Save Lives
That CCC-ID trains Indians to meet emergencies was dramatically-
revealed a few months ago at the Yakima Indian Reservation when quick as-
sistance was given to the victims of a disastrous gas explosion at Toppen-
ish. The violent explosion shattered windows eight blocks distant; killed
seven persons, injured fourteen others, and destroyed a large warehouse and
several stores. The Mayor of Toppenish requested help from the Yakima CCC-
ID organization. Every available man was rushed to the scene by truck.
Because of the fire resulting from the explosion fast work was needed to
save those who were trapped but still alive. The Indian CCC workers from
Yakima completely measured up to the emergency. City officials of Toppen-
ish have expressed the highest praise "for the efficient and effective man-
ner in which these men worked against time to do all that was humanly pos-
sible to save human lives during this terrific calamity. "
Learning The Mysteries Of The Telephone, Radio And Telephone School, Chemawa, Oregon
Wisconsin Reservation Stages Unusual Ceremony
J. C. Cavill, Superintendent of the Great Lakes Indian Agency,
Wisconsin, submits the following excerpts from an article in "Northern
Light", monthly publication of Northland College in Ashland:
"President Brownell reports an interesting and gratifying
experience last summer at the Indian village of Odanah, ten miles
east of Ashland. Under the direction of the Civilian Conserva-
tion Corps - Indian Division, of the Great Lakes Indian Agency,
courses of study covering 8 grades of grammar school have been
conducted during the winter. Twenty-six Indian men, under the
direction of Eric Enblom of the CCC staff at Great Lakes Agen-
cy, completed the course, took the state examinations and were
qualified for 8th grade diplomas. President Brownell was in-
vited to give the commencement address and present the certifi-
The graduates were all Indian men ranging in age from 19 to 65.
As each one was called to the platform, President Brownell presented him
with the diploma and a word of congratulation. The intense interest, the
eagerness and pride in their eyes, indicated how much this simple recogni-
tion meant to these "real Americans."
President Brownell remarked afterward that he had given many more
advanced degrees to successful candidates, but never had he felt a thrill
comparable with his participation in this unique ceremony. He said, "North-
land wishes to commend and congratulate the Indian Service upon this unique
accomplishment under heavy handicaps."
Eight Oklahoma Indian Workers Get Good Jobs
One of the many specific examples of the value of the training
program of the CCC-ID presents itself in Oklahoma. Eight former CCC-ID
workers are now gainfully employed in jobs which pay not less than $125
a month. These young men were all trained in engineering and construc-
tion activities of the CCC-ID at the Fjve Civilized Tribes Agency, Mus-
kogee, Oklahoma. Their names and their present connections are given here:
James Brown, Choctaw - Engineer Draftsman, U. S. Indian Roads Divi-
sion, Vicksburg, Mississippi.
Robert Cochran, Cherokee - Sub-surveyman, U. S. Engineering Division,
Arkansas River Flood Control, Wagoner, Oklahoma.
Ross Crittenden, Cherokee - Instrumentman, U. S. Engineering Division,
Cullen Jones, Cherokee - Chairman, Oklahoma State Highway Department,
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
Hillis Mayes, Cherokee - Sub-surveyman, U. S. Engineering Division,
Arkansas River Flood Control, Webber Falls,
Ewing E. Markham, Cherokee - County Engineer, Adair County, Oklahoma.
Tom McPherson, Cherokee - Field Engineer, Continental Oil Company, Ponca
Kenneth Scott, Cherokee - Engineer Draftsman, U. S. Engineering Division,
Accomplishments Of CCC-ID In New York State
Under the supervision of the New York Indian Agency at Buffalo,
conservation work has been undertaken on six reservations in the State of
New York. An average of 60 Indian enrollees is employed in this work of
improving reservation lands of each of the Six Nations - Senecas, Tuscar-
oras, Mohawks, Onondagas, Oneidas and Cayugas.
Work on the Allegany Reservation consists of truck trails, forest
stand improvement and channel control on the Bay State Creek. All material,
dead trees, and so forth, removed by the enrollees in forest stand improve-
ment is made available to the Indians for fire wood.
Florida $* mi no its Build A Community Show or Building
'ml HUM i H
At the Cattaraugus Reservation, tbe building of truck trails has
been a major project. A fire break is being constructed along the boundary
lines of the reservation.
On the Tuscarora Reservation, a drainage project has been com-
pleted which will make available a large area of previously water-logged
farm land and also eliminates a potent breeding ground for mosquitoes. A
timber type map of the Tuscarora Reservation has been completed.
At the Tonawanda Reservation an extensive program of spring de-
velopment has been carried out, also a program of forest stand improvement,
clearing out dead and dying trees, and making them available for use by the
Indians, deepening the channel on the Tonawanda Creek for flood control and
improvement of truck trails.
On the Onondaga Reservation, projects similar to those on the oth-
er reservations are being carried out, and in addition these Indians have
renovated and landscaped the Indian village at the New York State Fair
At the St. Regis Reservation, a forest tree nursery has been es-
tablished and planted by the enrollees. In connection with this project,
there is an interesting development. The Fish and Wildlife Service is con-
structing a storage reservoir as a part of the Montezuma Migratory Bird
Refuge. This necessitated the clearing of approximately 500 acres of tim-
ber. A survey of this timber indicated that from 15 to 25 per cent of the
trees which were to be removed consisted of black ash. When the Indians
heard of this, they were very much interested because black ash splints
are used in the making of utility baskets.
With the approval of Superintendent C. H. Berry, Senior Foreman
George A. MacPherson made arrangements with the Wildlife Service to permit
the Indians to take the selected black ash logs. The first suggestion was
that these logs might be transported to the Indian Reservations, but the
Indians had a better idea. They suggested that inasmuch as the bark and
center core of the trees would not be used in making splints and that only
selected logs would provide perfect splint material, it would be more eco-
nomical to assign expert _ Indian splint makers from ^he St. Regis and other
reservations to go to the Montezuma Refuge and salvage this material. Ar-
rangements were made to billet the men in the CCC camp, and thus the bas-
ket-making industry of the New York Indians has been supplied with a great
quantity of perfect black ash splints which would otherwise have been wasted
or used for fire wood.
FEDERAL COURT IN UTAH UPHOLDS THE AUTHORITY
OF SECRETARY ICKES IN NAVAJO GRAZING CASES
Authority of the Secretary of the Interior to regulate the use of reserva-
tion range; to protect the land from waste and unfair monopolization by individual
Indians was again upheld by The Honorable Tillman D. Johnson, judge in the U. S. Dis-
By oral decision of the U. S. District Court rendered at Salt Lake City,
February 14, 194-1, in and for the District of Utah, the court in effect upheld an
earlier unreported decision by the U. S. District Court at Phoenix, Arizona, (IT. S. vs.
Bega) which established the authority of the Secretary to so regulate the use of the
Navajo range in Arizona. The substance of the Utah Court decision follows:
THE COURT: With the continued and continuing increase in the number of the
Navajo Tribe and the limited area of the reservation, and the consequent limited graz-
ing capacity of the reservation, it is evident that the existing conditions there
challenge the farsightedness and statesmanship of every responsible agent of the Gov-
ernment charged with the duty of maintaining and promoting the well-being of these In-
There are two alternatives, with a possible third, if future disaster is to
be avoided, either the continued enlargement of the grazing area of the reservation,
or the development of the agricultural resources of the reservation, or both. A third
alternative is the possible receipt of royalties from the development of the mineral
and oil resources of the reservation, if any such exist.
Of course there is always this alternative: any Indian on the reservation
who owns livestock in excess of the number allowed by the regulations may remove this
excess stock from the reservation and own and maintain them in competition with his
I have permitted you Navajo witnesses who have testified in these cases to
freely express your views and detail your grievances, in order that I may better un-
derstand the situation, but not for the purpose of formulating a policy for the Gov-
ernment agencies who are charged with that duty. I have no such power.
It is conceded by your counsel that the Act of Congress authorizing the
Secretary of the Interior to establish regulations is valid, and that the regulations
established pursuant thereto are valid and within the authority delegated by Congress
to the Secretary of the Interior. The manner and time of the enforcement of these
regulations, or any one or more of the regulations, are administrative questions with-
in the fair discretion of the Secretary of the Interior and his agents acting under
The program now being enforced by the Secretary, and sought to be enforced
against the defendants in these four suits, is clearly within the authority of the
Secretary of the Interior and his agents. This court is without authority to modify
or change the regulations, or to stay their enforcement. These matters are all ex-
ecutive and administrative, and are not subject to judicial review. The only function
of this court in these cases is to prevent interference with the carrying out of the
program outlined in the regulations.
The Tribal Council has approved by resolution the regulations requiring re-
duction in the livestock of the defendants and others similarly situated. The members
of the Council were elected by a majority of the adult members of the tribe residing
on the reservation. This Council represents the Navajo people. Its voice is the voice
of the Navajo people. The defendants, and others similarly situated, should hear that
voice and cheerfully obey it. This is the democratic way of life in this country.
I shall be very sorry if any Navajo hereafter shall interfere with the agents
of the Government in carrying out these regulations.
If these defendants, or any one of them, shall hereafter interfere with the
agents in carrying out the provisions of the regulations, it will be my duty to send
for him and bring him to Salt Lake City and keep him here in jail until the work of
the agents has been completed. You do not want that to occur. It will be your duty
and privilege to be present with these agents and Join in the selection of the stock
to be removed from the reservation, and to select that stock which you are authorized
to keep on the reservation.
The Secretary of the Interior and his agents are your friends and are anxious
to promote the best interest of the Navajo people.
If after a trial of the regulations now in force it shall appear to be in
the interest of the Navajo people to change the regulations, I have no doubt the Secre-
tary of the Interior will consider the matter fully, when it is properly presented to
him by you. There is the proper place to present your grievances, and the Secretary
is the proper man to consider them.
When you defendants return to your homes I hope you will remember what I have
said to you today. You must all remember that I am your friend.
Young Wisconsin Chippewa Indian Wins Acclaim
For Rescuing Illinois Men From Drowning
Some one of the many young Indians whose college education is being financed
by Indian Office educational loans this year can thank John St. Germain, 19-year-old
Chippewa of Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin, for having made his studies possible. Last
spring John was granted an educational loan by the Office of Indian Affairs, so that
he could learn to be a mechanical engineer at the University of Wisconsin. He had
proved himself to be a good student, as well as a fine athlete in high school, and
was well recommended by his teachers. A few months later he wrote the Indian Office
that he would not need the loan after all because he had been given money as a mark of
appreciation for a heroic rescue.
It all happened as the result of a motorboat ride John took one day on Big
Crawling Stone Lake, with three Illinois state officials. They were John J. Hallihan,
then State Director of Registration and Education; Martin J. O'Brien, public adminis-
trator; and Arthur P. O'Brien, secretary to the late Governor Horner. About half a
mile from shore the boat tipped over, spilling John and the three men into the cold
choppy water. John was the only swimmer in the group, but by making three trips to
shore through icy water, he brought the men to safety.
Unfortunately Martin O'Brien collapsed when he reached the shore, and later
died. A group of O'Brien's friends, in recognition of John's bravery, got together and
made it possible for him to receive a scholarship of $300 at the University of Wiscon-
sin, where he is now enrolled as a freshman. He was also awarded a bronze medal by the
Carnegie Hero Fund Commission. The first thing John did upon receiving the scholarship
was to turn his loan back to the Indian Office so that some other student might use it.
SMrTHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES
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